Today, one of the most common types of military equipment in all armies of the world are armored personnel carriers. But this was not always the case. Their rapid development began after the end of the Second World War. The military realized how important it is to increase the mobility of infantry and increase its security.
In the USSR in 1949 the BTR-40 was adopted, which was almost an exact replica of the American Scout Car M3A1 armored personnel carrier, supplied under lend-lease. Then in 1950, the BTR-152 was released, and in 1959 the Soviet amphibious armored personnel carrier BTR-60 was put into service. Two gasoline engines with two transmissions were installed on it, and this car was not particularly reliable. Yes, and its fire power did not suit the military. In 1976, the BTR-70 was created, the armament of which was strengthened. A KPVT machine gun (14.5 mm) and a PKT machine gun were installed on it. This car differed favorably from its predecessor, it also had two gasoline engines installed, but much more powerful than the BTR-60.
However, then the war began in Afghanistan and all the shortcomings of the BTR-70 immediately made themselves felt. His main problem was the power plant, which was complex, not very reliable and consumed a large amount of fuel. It can be said that the BTR-70 was generally not well adapted to operations in the highlands. Even the machine gun mounted on it had a small angle of elevation and could do little to help the fighters against the spooks in the mountains.
It was very inconvenient to parachute out of the car, and its security left much to be desired. At the Gorky Automobile Plant, the development of a new armored personnel carrier begins, which in the near future will be called the BTR-80.
The history of the BTR-80
The car received the factory designation GAZ-5903. The device of the machine is not fundamentally different from the BTR-70. The developers focused on the improvement of the power plant of the machine. I needed one reliable diesel engine. The presence in the combat vehicle of two engines and transmissions at once gave certain advantages (if one engine was damaged, the BTR could move with the help of the other). But the complexity of the current maintenance and repair of the power plant with such a device, reduced the positive qualities almost to nothing.
The diesel engine from the KamAZ serial car was delivered to the new car, which significantly reduced the cost of production and maintenance of new equipment. Thanks to the installation of the turbocharger, the BTR-80 could reach speeds of 20 km / h higher than its predecessor.
On the BTR-80 were made new hatches for the landing, consisting of two wings. Armament remains the same, but the design of the tower has been changed. The BTR-80 armored personnel carrier became two tons heavier than its predecessor, but thanks to the installation of a more powerful engine, this did not affect its maneuverability.
In 1986, the car was put into service and it began to produce mass. Today, the BTR-80 is the main armored personnel carrier of the Russian army, as well as many other armies in the world. This machine is actively exported, the BTR-80 was involved in a variety of conflicts.
Dozens of the most diverse modifications of the BTR-80 have been created; machines are made at its base for performing special functions. On the latest modifications of this machine, an automatic gun and anti-tank missile systems are often installed.
Description of the BTR-80
The BTR-80 armored personnel carrier is designed to transport personnel and support it with fire on the battlefield. Although, the fire support function is more relevant to the infantry fighting vehicle.
The body of the car is made of armored rolled sheets. The body of the machine has a streamlined shape, it is necessary to give it buoyancy and to increase its protection. Armor thickness does not exceed 10 millimeters.
The BTR-80 is divided into several sections. Ahead is the department of management, in which the place of the driver-mechanic and the commander of the machine. There are also installed surveillance devices (including night), instrumentation, radio station and intercom.
Behind the office of control is the combat compartment. It is the place of the operator-gunner and a place for paratroopers (seven people). One infantryman is sitting next to the gunner, facing in the direction of travel, and the rest are facing the vehicle’s side, three people on each side. The compartment has loopholes for the use of personal weapons. For firing from a machine gun, the gunner takes a special hanging chair.
Also in the fighting compartment is a large hatch for landing. It consisted of two wings: the upper part was opened to the side, and the lower part was lowered and served as a convenient footboard when leaving the car.
The power compartment is located in the stern of the machine. It has a diesel engine with transmission, radiators, fuel tanks and oil tanks, generators and other equipment.
The armament of the BTR-80 consists of a KPVT machine gun and a PKT machine gun, which are located in the turret of the vehicle. The KPVT machine gun has a caliber of 14.5 mm and can fight with the enemy's manpower, with light armored vehicles and low-flying air targets. The tower is also located sight 1P3-2 and observation devices.
The BTR-80 is built on an 8 × 8 wheel formula, two front wheel pairs are driven. Suspension machine independent, torsion bar. Wheels - tubeless, bulletproof. There is a system that provides pressure control in the wheels. The BTR-80 will continue to move, even if two wheels fail.
Characteristics TTX BTR-80
Below are the technical specifications of the BTR-80.
|Speed km / h|
|on the highway||≥80|
|by dirt road||20-40|
|on the highway, km||600|
|by dirt road, km||200-500|
|pit width, m||2|
|wall height, m||0,5|
|Ammunition, ammo||500; 2000|