Few of the issues relating to the armament of the Russian army, does not cause such fierce disputes as the future of the national armored forces. Experts, journalists, professional military men and just people interested in military affairs participate in a fierce discussion. Russian mass media regularly publish articles on this topic. Representatives of the top leadership of the Russian army are not getting tired of adding oil to the fire.
Disputes are underway about the potential of Russian combat vehicles, as well as about their comparison with foreign counterparts. In 2011, the then Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Ground Forces, Colonel-General Postnikov, spoke extremely unflatteringly about the characteristics of the T-90 tank, comparing them with those of the main German tank Leopard-2. According to him, the T-90 is not a technical breakthrough, but just another modernization of the T-72, in which there is nothing fundamentally new. He also mentioned that, in his opinion, the price of a Russian tank is too high - for 120 million rubles (this is the price of one T-90) you can buy several Leopard tanks 2A7. On the other hand, many experts call the T-90 the best to date the main tank in the world. Where is the truth?
The T-90 tank is a continuation of the T-72 and T-80 family of vehicles. Its development and testing began in the late 80s of the last century, and it was adopted for service in 1992. The machine does not contain any revolutionary innovations, conceptually it continues earlier machines. Of course, many changes were made to the design of the T-90: the fire control system was improved, the defense, the machine received more sophisticated multi-layer armor and built-in dynamic protection - but we can say that the T-90 is just the most modern T-72 upgrade.
The history of the T-90:
In 1985, mass production of the new T-72B tank began - but already at that time the tank was morally obsolete in comparison with advanced foreign analogues. This was especially true of the fire control system, in this regard, he lost not only to Leopard and Abrams, but even to new Soviet tanks. Therefore, immediately after the start of mass production of the T-72B, work began on its modernization.
They installed a fire control system (CWD) 1A45 "Irtysh" on the machine, it was well developed on T-80 tanks), it was combined with an automatic tank-loading machine. Also installed the latest complex of optical-electronic suppression (COEP) "Blind", which protected the car from anti-tank weapons, especially using laser guidance. It cannot be said that the new tank turned out to be a breakthrough in its technical characteristics - but the defense and firepower of the vehicle were increased.
In 1989, state tests of the tank began at several test sites in different parts of the USSR. Particularly difficult were the tests in Central Asia, in conditions of high temperature, sand and dust. In 1992, the tests were successfully completed, and the new machine was put into service. In the same year, the mass production of the machine, which received the designation T-90, began. After the tragic death of Vladimir Ivanovich Potkin, the chief designer of this model, the T-90 was named after him in his honor "Vladimir".
The T-90 of various modifications has become the most sought-after and sold Russian tank on the world market. Until 1998, 120 tanks of this type were manufactured for the Russian Ministry of Defense. In 2004, work began on the modernization of the T-90, which resulted in the T-90A and T-90AK machines (they were distinguished by a more powerful engine, a new welded turret, an improved thermal imaging sight, and a new gun stabilizer). The latest modification of the T-90 is the T-90AM tank, on which the new Kalina fire control system, a modernized gun, a new automatic loader and a more powerful engine are installed.
During the production of the T-90, several export modifications of the tank were created, which took into account the requirements of customers. The Russian Ministry of Defense has stopped purchasing the car since the end of 2011.
The device of the tank T-90
The main battle tank T-90 has a classic layout scheme: in the nose part there is a control compartment, the combat compartment is in the middle of the car, and the engine and transmission are in the rear of the tank. The crew consists of three people: in the department of management there is a driver, and the commander and gunner are inside the tower, to the left and to the right of the gun.
The body of the tank is made of welded armor, the frontal part of the machine consists of multilayer armor using composite materials and with built-in dynamic protection.
The main armament of the T-90 is a 125-mm smooth-bore gun. The gun is equipped with a stabilizer, a chrome-plated barrel, has a system for recording the deformation of the barrel and the pumping of powder gases. The length of the gun is 48 calibers. The gun's rate of fire reaches 8 shots in 56 seconds. The T-90 is also armed with a paired machine gun and an anti-aircraft gun (NSVT "Cliff").
The tank’s ammunition is 43 shots and includes various types of ammunition: 3BM42 armor-piercing shells, 3BK29M armor-piercing cumulative shells, high-explosive fragmentation shells with an electronic remote fuse (increases the effectiveness of fighting with enemy force in the shelter of the world, increases the effectiveness of the fight against manpower, shepherd shells with an electronic remote fuse (increases the effectiveness of the fight against manpower and enemy bombardment weapons, which can use),),),), 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 9),),),), 4, 4, 4, 4, 9, 4, 4), which can be used for the protection of the enemy forces in the artillery, 3kM2929 The firing range of anti-tank missiles ranges from 100 to 5000 meters. Ammunition with such a range of destruction does not have any tank in the world.
A four-stroke 12-cylinder diesel engine is installed on the T-90; in later versions of the car it was replaced with a more advanced engine with a turbocharger, which made it possible to increase its power from 840 hp up to 1000 hp The engine provides greater mobility and maneuverability of the tank, no wonder the T-90 is called the "Russian flying tank." Transmission planetary type, there are 7 gears forward and one back.
The fire control system makes shooting as easy as possible. All data (firing range, wind direction and speed, air temperature, tank position) for firing are taken into account automatically and the gunner just has to aim the target and press the shot button. The tank is equipped with a night-sight "Buran-PA", as well as the aiming complex of the commander of the tank "Agat-S".
T-90 is protected by multi-layered armor with built-in dynamic protection "Contact-5". The complex of optical-electronic countermeasures "Shtora-1" protects the vehicle from anti-tank weapons with a semi-automatic guidance system or laser homing. The sensors of laser radiation ensure its reception in a radius of 360 °, the data are quickly processed, and an aerosol grenade is fired in the right direction, blocking the laser beam. The tank has a modern fire extinguishing system.
Vulnerable place to protect the T-90 tank is considered its fuel system. The fuel tanks are partly removed to the combat compartment and are not separated from the crew. Another problem of this vehicle is the placement of ammunition within the combat compartment, and it is also not isolated from the crew. Its detonation is guaranteed to lead to the destruction of the tank.
On the T-90 used chassis T-72. In combination with the new engine, reliable transmission and low weight of the machine, it provides high mobility and maneuverability. Because of the ability to effectively overcome obstacles, some Western experts call the T-90 a "flying tank."
Main TTX T-90 tank
|Tank weight, t||46,5|
|Tank hull width, m||3,78|
|Height of the tower hatch, m||2,23|
|Engine power, hp||800/1000 l. with. (diesel)|
|Number of cylinders||12|
|Type: Mechanical||Two side gearboxes, input gearbox and coaxial side gearboxes|
|Number of gears (forward / backward)||7/1|
|Resource tank with diesel fuel on the highway; capacity||550 km; 1200 l|
|With mounted tanks; capacity||700 km; 400 l|
|Fuel consumption, l / 100 km||240-450|
|Speed on the highway, km / h||60|
|Speed in arable land, km / h||50|
|Barrier Angle||30 degrees|
|Barrier barrier, m||0,8|
|Barrier ditch, m||2,8|
|Barrier ford, m||1,2 (1,8)|
|Type of gun; caliber||Smooth-bore; 125 mm|
|Firing range||5 km|
|Ammunition, pcs.||42 (22 projectile in the automatic loader)|
|Rate of fire||8 shots per minute|
|Types of ammunition||BPS, BCS, OFS, SD|
|Paired with a gun machine gun||PTKM 7.62 mm; 2000 rounds|
|Heavy machine gun||CORD 12.7 mm; 300 rounds|
|Multilayer armor combined with dynamic protection "Kontakt-5". COEP "SHTORA-1"|
Advantages and disadvantages of the T-90
The T-90 tank is indeed a modern tank with characteristics that are not inferior to foreign analogues. Its strengths are good mobility and maneuverability, reliability of the engine and chassis, as well as a good level of security. The relatively small weight of the tank and its dimensions make the car less vulnerable to enemy fire.
The negative sides of the T-90 include the location of the ammunition and fuel tanks next to the crew. Dynamic protection is ineffective against tandem ammunition (although the tank defense system is effective against most anti-tank weapons). The fire control system on early versions is outdated, although the Kalina MSA, installed on the latest models, is not inferior to foreign analogues. The disadvantage of the tank is also low speed reverse.
The undoubted advantage of the T-90 is the ability to fire guided missiles at a distance of up to 5,000 meters.
Modifications of the T-90 tank:
- T-90S - a car made for export
- T-90SK - Commander version of the T-90S
- T-90K - commander tank T-90, the vehicle is equipped with additional communications and navigation equipment
- The T-90A is a machine with a more powerful power plant, a welded turret, a new automatic loader and a new thermal imaging sight.
- T-90AK - Commander T-90A
- T-90CA - export version of the T-90A
- T-90SKA - Commander version of the T-90CA
- T-90AM- the latest modification of the T-90A. Installed SUA "Kalina", a new automatic loader and a new DZ "Relikt" and the power plant V-92S2F (1130 hp)
There are a number of machines developed on the basis of the T-90 - for engineering works, bridge laying, recovery vehicles. The T-90 is in service with several countries.