As part of any fleet that is concerned about the protection of its near sea frontiers, there should always be patrol boats. Ships of this class are the smallest ships, but on their shoulders lies perhaps the largest list of tasks and functions. Patrol boats in the modern Russian navy are hard-working ships that carry heavy military service day and night and perform a huge amount of other work. The most prominent representative of this class of vessels are the Pattor patrol boat of the project 03160.
These vessels as part of the Coast Guard of the Federal Border Guard Service can be found in the coastal waters of the Baltic, the Black Sea and the Far East. Ships of this class are part of all fleets and river military fleets, provide safety and security in inland waterways. For our country, which has the longest maritime borders and an abundance of other water areas, the value of such ships can not be overestimated.
New patrol boats "Raptor" in the Russian Navy
The design bureau of a new generation patrol boat for the needs of the navy was engaged in the design office of the Leningrad shipbuilding plant "Pella". This company specializes in the design and construction of towing and specialized vessels of all types. The plant received a task for the design and development of a new boat for the Russian fleet directly from the Supreme Naval Command. The choice of the project developer was not accidental. It was Leningrad shipbuilders who had the necessary experience in building special-purpose vessels and boats for the sea and river zone. In addition, the plant capacity and unique technologies used in the construction of ships, allowed to quickly and accurately fulfill the terms of contracts.
Therefore, when the terms of reference for the creation of a patrol boat of a new generation appeared, the designers of the Leningrad CVD "Pella" already had practically ready developments. To reinvent the wheel did not have to. The project of the Swedish boat CB90, which has successfully plowed the seas and rivers for more than 25 years, was taken as the basis for a new domestic patrol vessel.
Domestic project 03160 was developed in a short time. The new ship received the cipher "Raptor". The high-speed armed ship was supposed to behave as a swift and formidable prehistoric predator. It took only about a year, and the first boat has already begun to emerge in the metal. The laying of the first boat at the plant slipway took place in 2012. The following year, the ship was launched with the side number P-274.
The new boat looks very similar to another patrol vessel, produced at the Rybinsk Shipbuilding Plant, a boat of project 02510. In both projects, the constructive structure of the Swedish patrol ship is taken as a basis.
The ship was so successful that three more ships were laid behind the lead ship. In 2014, it became known that Leningrad shipbuilders signed a contract for the construction of 4 vessels during 2014 and for the construction of the same vessels of the same type as early as 2018.
To date, the patrol boats P-274, P-275 and P-276 have been transferred to the fleet and enlisted in the anti-sabotage forces of the Novorossiysk naval base. In the summer of 2018 St. Andrew's flags were raised on ships. The fourth ship with tail number P-281 in December 2014 was launched. The following year, the patrol boat raised the flag of St. Andrew and became part of the Baltic Fleet. The base of the vessel was the Kronstadt Naval Base.
After the delivery of the first four boats at the facilities of the Leningrad Pella plant, four more boats of the same type were consistently laid and built. Thanks to its huge technological resource, the Pattor patrol boat "Raptor" of project 03160 is the fastest and most powerful among similar vessels in foreign fleets.
Purpose of the Raptor patrol boat
For combat ships of this class, at the present stage, a certain range of tasks is set that the fleet faces in the coastal sea zone. Patrol boats with high speed characteristics and maneuverability, specially designed for action in the waters of the internal seas at a distance of up to 100 miles from their bases. Thanks to its technical equipment and good seaworthiness, boats of the project 03160 are able to operate both during the day and at night.
The main purpose of this class of vessels is as follows:
- patrols and duty duty in designated areas of the coastal marine zone;
- reconnaissance of the water area and interception of small violating vessels;
- delivery and disembarkation of the landing party on the shore facility or on a ship at sea;
- rescue operations at sea in the surrounding areas;
- defense and protection of the coastline from attacks of small-sized enemy ships and air strikes.
Together with other naval forces, the Raptor patrol boats can be involved in the sabotage operations of the marine units and assist the Federal Border Service for the protection of sea lines. The key factor determining the scope of use of vessels of this class is their high maneuverability, seaworthiness and speed. New ships are able to withstand anxiety up to 5 points and move at high speed in stormy conditions when the height of the waves does not exceed 4.5 meters.
By coloring the hull, which has a pronounced camouflage shade with chopped colored spots, the new ships are intended to equip special units of the navy.
The design of the patrol boat Raptor project 03160
It has already been said that the parameters and design of the Combat Boat 90 patrol boat, similar in the class of a ship built in Sweden, were taken as the basis for the new domestic patrol boat. Launched by the Swedish firm Dock Stavarvet in 1991, these ships were widely distributed throughout the world. The successful design of the vessel ensured its mass release. In more than 10 countries, including such large ones as the USA, Brazil and Mexico, these vessels form the backbone of coastal defense units. Domestic development has become a practical implementation of the license contract.
For reference: From 2004 to 2012, the Federal Security Service purchased 11 boats of the project IC16MII, manufactured at Swedish shipyards. Good seaworthiness and the uninterrupted operation of Swedish vessels in various fields necessitated the naval command to obtain a similar vessel for the needs of its own Navy.
Swedish-built patrol boats were transferred to the Black Sea Fleet, providing protection for the coastal zone during the 2014 Sochi Olympics.
In contrast to the Swedish model of the ship, the Russian development is large. The body is 17 meters long and made of aluminum alloy. The bow of the ship is equipped with a ramp, providing a convenient landing or transfer to another object. The conning tower is designed for two crew members who control the vessel. The troop compartment is equipped to carry 20 people. In addition to the nasal ramp, landing from the boat can be carried out from the stern and through the side hatches. One waterproof door inside the boat provides the ship with necessary buoyancy when one of the compartments is flooded.
On the vessel in the rear there is an engine room, where two Caterpiller diesel engines with turbocharging are installed. The total power of two diesel engines is 2300 hp Such power provides the boat with a large capacity and high speed, up to 48 knots. As the main propulsion unit on the ship are Rolls-Royce Kamewa 36A3 HS water jets.
The range of the patrol boat of the project 03160 is 300 miles on an economical course.
A distinctive feature of the new vessel is the presence of armor protection. It should be noted that the Swedish boat did not have a reservation. The conning tower and the cockpits for the placement of the landing force have anti-bullet and anti-fragmentation booking. Armor on the boat corresponds to 5 and 5A class of protection. Portholes made of durable, bullet-proof glass 39 mm thick are installed in the wheelhouse. The presence of armor significantly increased the displacement of the Russian boat, 23 tons versus 13 tons for the Swedish model.
In comparison with foreign-built boats, on which only one machine gun with a 12.7 mm caliber stands, domestic ships are equipped with much more powerful weapons. On the boat they installed a 14.5 mm heavy machine gun KPVT as part of the combat automatic module "Uprava-KORD". Due to the gyroscope and stabilizer, the fire from the combat module can be conducted even with great agitation. The sighting range is 2000 m. In addition to the main automatic weapon, the boats are equipped with two Pecheneg machine guns with a caliber of 7.62 mm.
The use of weapons controls automation. On the Raptor boats, there is a fire control system that provides not only the search for a target, but also automatically determines the optimal parameters for the combat use of the gun.
Combat work of boats of project 03160 in the current conditions
Having carefully studied the technical capabilities of the domestic patrol boats of the project 03160, and having received the most favorable reviews from the sailors, the Higher Naval Command decided to continue to replenish the fleets with ships of this type.
In addition to the 7 Raptor patrol boats of the fleet in 2018, the Leningrad Pella Shipyard is to build 10 more ships. Two ships with serial numbers 709 and 710 were already available to sailors at the end of 2018. Delivery and commissioning of the remaining boats is scheduled for 2018 and 2018.
Today, the Raptor patrol boats with board numbers P-280, P-281 and P-344 are in service on the Baltic.
At the Black Sea Theater, the coastal defense forces of the Black Sea Fleet include boats P-274, P-275, P-276, P-838 and P-845.
In modern conditions, the Raptor boats carry patrol service for the protection of maritime borders in the waters of the Gulf of Finland and on the Black Sea. According to unverified data, a number of small vessels, similar in parameters and appearance to boats of the project 03160, were noticed on board a Russian vessel en route to the Eastern Mediterranean. It is assumed that two or three Raptor type boats can take part in military operations for the protection of Russian military ships based in the Syrian naval base Tartus.
New boats of the project 03160 type "Raptor" are the result of the fruitful cooperation of the military departments of the Kingdom of Sweden and the Russian Federation. The technical documentation obtained under the licensing conditions made it possible in the shortest possible time to establish in the domestic shipyards mass construction of ships of this class.
The practical implementation of the project showed the correctness and accuracy of engineering thought of St. Petersburg shipbuilders, who managed to create an almost new universal combat ship. Domestic development is distinguished by high speed, armor and powerful weapons. It is assumed that in the future vessels will be built, both to equip their own fleets, and in the export version. The following shiploads can be laid at the Rybinsk Shipbuilding Enterprise, which has mastered the production cycle of building the BK-16 type 02510 patrol boats.