One of the first trucks of the Kama plant was Kamaz-5320. This transport was intended for transportation of industrial and household goods over long distances. The first prototype appeared in 1968. Until 2000, the appearance remained unchanged, and only at the beginning of the new millennium were made small changes.
Specifications allow you to make both short and long trips. Car Kamaz 5320 behaves well not only on the track, but also in urban environments. The main feature is adaptation to the Russian climate. The motor starts after several days of inactivity in severe frost.
Initially, the car was planned to be operated only in the domestic market. However, foreign consumers liked the design and the device, so over the many years of its existence, the Kamaz-5320 sold out in more than 40 countries of the world.
History of creation
In 1968, this transport was called differently - ZIL-170. It was equipped with an engine produced in Yaroslavl. In 1969, the ZIL-170 passed all the necessary tests on a long-distance highway. After starting the development of a project on the construction of a large plant in Naberezhnye Chelny, the development of this truck was given to Kamaz. Only then did the car get its current name.
The first 5320 was assembled in 1974. The first series of trucks was assembled in 1976. They were decorated with the traditional at the time the inscription "Our gift to the XXV Congress of the CPSU". On the basis of the machine, other tractors and dump trucks were developed, which performed different tasks in production and in the farm.
Transport built by all the canons of the 60-70s of the last century. The engine is located under the cab, which reclines if necessary. Cab Kamaz-5320 is designed for three people. The power unit consists of a motor, clutch and transmission, which are attached to special supports.
As mentioned above, the tractor is equipped with a Yaroslavl engine for eight cylinders arranged in a V-type. There are two versions of the 5320 in power: 210 and 180 horsepower. The engine develops up to 2600 revolutions per minute.
Diesel engines were equipped with structural solutions that were not previously used on the Soviet market. Some of them were nitrided crankshaft and full-flow oil filtration with a centrifuge.
The cooling system is now controlled automatically. The hydraulic clutch was responsible for control, which included a fan and two thermostats in its design. Antifreeze was used for cooling, the system itself was made according to a closed type.
The air was cleaned through a dry filter. The ejector, which worked due to the exhaust gases, removed dust from the filter, increasing its service life. The remaining innovations were related to various trifles, which simplified the operation and maintenance of the tractor.
Coupling Kamaz-5320 made on dual-disc technology. The pedal works freely, as the design has a pneumatic booster, which is included in the design of the Kamaz-5320 hydraulic clutch control drive.
Along with the main box Kamaz-5320 there is an additional one called multiplier. It has two steps and is installed after the clutch KamAZ-5320. One program here - direct, and the second - up.
The main transmission is designed for five steps. All but the first one are synchronized. Remote control is carried out using a mechanical drive. The pneumatic actuator is responsible for switching the stages.
Open driveline includes two tubular shaft. The hinges are placed on needle bearings, which must always be lubricated with a margin. The transmission of the main bridges KAMAZ-5320 is double: the gears differ from each other by the types of teeth. The middle axle is equipped with a lockable symmetrical center differential.
Suspension and wheels
The front suspension is equipped with springs and telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers. They work together with each other. Balanced rear suspension is equipped with semi-elliptical springs, the ends of which are made on the sliding type. Sheets with T-section.
Wheels for KAMAZ-5320 do not have discs. Lock and side rings can be quickly removed. Radial tires include 12 layers, equipped with a standard tread pattern. This design allows you to easily move through wooded roads.
Brakes and steering
The brake system KamAZ-5320 is represented by four mechanisms: working, standing, auxiliary and spare. All wheels of the car are equipped with a two-block drum brake mechanism. The working brake is equipped with a pneumatic drive. It has a separate effect on the wheels of the tractors and the trailer.
When parked, the mechanism affects the trolley wheels. The system works due to spring energy accumulators. Receiving pipes of the muffler include in their construction an auxiliary brake mechanism. His job is to influence the pressure due to the valves in the exhaust system.
Standing brakes are used in cases where one of the major brake systems fails. The main systems are controlled with a pedal, for a standing brake there is a special lever and a thrust with two sections. Together with the standing system, the spare one is activated, the auxiliary one is activated with a special button.
The steering mechanism of the tractor is equipped with a hydraulic booster that simplifies handling. GUR Kamaz-5320 has good quality and passes without repair more than ten thousand kilometers. The steering wheel turns freely without effort.
Internal content of the truck
The cabin accommodates three people. One place is allocated for the driver, two - for passengers (as a rule, the second driver and repairman). There is no sleeping space. The cabin has excellent sound insulation and protection from other external influences.
At the beginning of the release, the Kamaz-5320 was one of the safest tractors in relation to the driver and passengers. Strong belts fix the position of people in the cabin, which saves from injury in case of an accident. The driver's seat can be adjusted to his weight: it is equipped with a soft cushion and backrest, the position of which is easily adjustable.
The dashboard of transport is equipped with the necessary indicators and system. Interaction with them allows the driver to constantly monitor the technical condition of the car. All buttons and indicators are located in the immediate vicinity of the driver, which is convenient while driving.
There is no need to service the tractor every day. The manufacturer makes the following inspection recommendations after the start of use of vehicles:
- Technical prophylaxis after the first thousand kilometers passed;
- Checking the car in a special service after eight thousand kilometers;
- Conduct deep prevention after twelve thousand kilometers.
Regular technical control after a certain distance is required. Without it, no one guarantees safe driving in Kamaz. All these procedures allow you to keep the technical part of the truck at a high level, as well as to keep its appearance in good condition.
During technical procedures, all vehicle control systems and technical units are checked. After the lubrication of special structures required structures. If necessary, repairmen can add or remove certain nodes.
Kamaz-5320 repair and maintenance are cheap, as there are many components and spare parts on the domestic market that are needed for this transport. You can do it with your own hands (if you have certain experience), and in special services.
Various configuration KAMAZ-5320
On the basis of the tractor was created several other trucks, which are also widely used in the domestic and foreign markets:
- Kamaz-5410 - truck tractor, transports up to 19 thousand kilograms of cargo;
- KAMAZ-5511 is a dump truck that carries up to 10 thousand kilograms of cargo. Used in the construction industry;
- Kamaz-53112 - tractor, transports up to 10 thousand kilograms of cargo;
- KAMAZ-55102 - dump truck, designed to ride with a trailer.
What can be concluded?
Due to the great popularity, many cars of this brand were produced. Already in 1979, the plant overcame the milestone of 100,000 trucks, which was an absolute record for the Soviet Union and many other countries. Onboard Kamaz-5320 held a large share of the total.
Kamaz-5320 produced exactly 25 years. Conveyor production was stopped in 2001. Despite this, popularity has not fallen. Now for this transport there is a great demand in the secondary market due to the simplicity of the design and cheap service.
In modern realities, the truck meets all the necessary requirements for the transport of medium-sized cargo over medium and long distances. It is actively used for both intercity and intracity traffic. The price in the secondary market is 150-500 thousand rubles: depends on the technical and external condition.