The armament of the times of the mighty power of the USSR competed at the proper level with the weapons and equipment of other powers. In some moments, the indicators of certain types of weapons by many orders of magnitude superior to their competitors. History confirms that such leadership gave a number of great advantages and kept potential enemies in fear and tension. Aviation is no exception. Certain achievements in the design of aircraft and weapons for them determined the domination of the USSR Air Force in the global airspace for many years.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau produced a number of really good cars. Excellent aerodynamic qualities, powerful armament, supersonic speed and many more positive characteristics - these are the main distinguishing characteristics of the aircraft of this bureau. Today we will talk about the legendary car - this is the MiG 25 aircraft.
History of the development of the MiG 25
In the 1950s, all the designers worked on the creation of heavy supersonic fighters, which were to withstand the heavy supersonic bombers of foreign military forces. These included the North American HV-70 ("Valkyrie"), the Convair B-58 ("Hustler"). Works were conducted in the strictest secrecy. The MiG Bureau worked on such models as E-152 (E-166), E-150, E-152M. In 1961, March 10, Mikoyan issued an official decree on the creation of a new car.
The prototype received the index E-155. This aircraft also became the progenitor of the famous MiG 25. Designers faced many challenges. There were such cases that the drawings were altered more than once. What power plant to choose, what weapons to use, what automatic systems to control to use. Designers often encountered such questions when designing a machine.
MiG 25 specifications
For many years, the MiG 25 fighter reigned in the sky. It was on this machine and its modifications that many records of speed and altitude were set. Drawings of cars were kept secret. The use of this model of aircraft is very wide.
- MiG 25P - the very first MiG 25 interceptor, the basic model first released in 1969 (based on the E-155P prototype);
- MiG 25PU - a model designed for training purposes;
- MiG 25MP - an improved model, which became a prototype for the MiG 31. Not serially produced;
- MiG 25 PD - A modified model with powerful weapons and electronics. These include the MiG 25PDS and MiG 25PDSL models, which were equipped with an R15BD-300 type engine.
- MiG 25R - super high-altitude scout. Performed radar, radio and optical intelligence. It was equipped with high-quality optics and photographic equipment.
- MiG 25BM - intended to break through the air defense line. Equipped with anti-radar missiles X-58. Could carry missiles with nuclear warheads. Defeats on the targets of the enemy's radiolocation service were plotted from the height of the stratosphere
- MiG 25RBT - electronic reconnaissance aircraft. The cockpit was equipped with the latest electronics, station "Pitch".
- MiG 25MR - intended for the study and prediction of meteorological observations. Special equipment was installed on it.
Tactical reconnaissance bombers
MiG 25RB, MiG 25RBV - this is the all-high-altitude, single aircraft, which were intended for reconnaissance and bombardment. Were equipped with high-precision electronics, powerful radar equipment (СРС-4А). They carried on board impressive military armament. The mass of the bomb load was 4000 kg. Were carriers of nuclear weapons. For automatic bombing, the Peleng-D navigation system was used.
Electronics and radar equipment
The cabin of the aircraft was equipped with powerful electronics, the characteristics of which at that time were the best for this type of fighter. These include the SAU-155P1 system (automatic control system), the 26M-1 heat finder, the Sirena-3M SPO (radiation warning system), the R-19 radio altimeter, and the Azure guidance system. Scout mounted powerful side-looking radar stations such as "Saber".
Air-to-air missiles R-40R / T and R-60 were used. Bombers FOTAB 100-80, FAB-500M-62 were used for bombers.
The R15B-300 engine was installed on most of the MiG 25 aircraft and their modifications. The technical data of this unit is impressive. He accelerated the fighter to a speed of three mach and raised to a height of 22 kilometers. The thrust is 11,200 kgf.
When fully armed, the fighter developed a speed of 3000 km / h. Without weapons, the speed increased by 10-15%. American scientists, conducting tests, proved that the R15B-300 engine achieves speeds of up to 3400 km / h. The maximum speed of the MiG 25 reached 3600 km / h. When flying over the Sinai Peninsula, this speed was fixed on both sides of Soviet aircraft in 1972.
According to these data, the MiG 25 fighter set an absolute record in speed and altitude data. But for security reasons, the pilots were forbidden to accelerate the aircraft over 3000 km / h.
Drawings of this car were desirable for design offices of many countries. Potential enemies wanted to know all the nuances:
- the use of a fighter;
- data of maximum flight speed and altitude;
- unique design of the engine, weapons, electronic stuffing.
History says that in 1976, on September 6, the MiG 25 fighter hijacked the Soviet pilot Belenko Victor to Japan. When a regular flight traitor crossed the border and landed in Japan. He asked for political asylum from the United States. The aircraft was dismantled and taken to the states for a thorough examination. This was the impetus for the re-equipment on all aircraft of new electronics and equipment.